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Falling in step with the Deer Dancer

Hanna Tuulikki with antlers

In autumn 2017, I was delighted to be awarded an artist attachment with Magnetic North to develop Deer Dancer, an interdisciplinary project investigating the mimesis of deer, specifically, representations within traditional dance forms.

The attachment has enabled me to take time with my research – a rare opportunity in a production-focused art world – allowing me to follow the seasonal nature of the traditions, guided by the deer. I've made numerous field trips to observe dances, interview practitioners, and learn steps directly from tradition bearers. This has further been informed by experiential research: observing deer in their habitat(s), animal tracking in the Sonora desert and deer stalking at Trees for Life rewilding estate.

In a nutshell, my focus has been to examine how the imitation of deer behaviour within dance constructs ideas of 'wilderness' as the site for the cultivation of hetero-masculinity and, informed by posthumanism and eco-queer methodologies, I have also been exploring aspects of 'technology' and 'costume' as practices that extend the body and expand perception within 'gender performance'. I plan to realise the resulting body of work in two stages, firstly as an audiovisual installation, incorporating music, costumed choreography on film and visual scores, to be exhibited next year, and then, eventually, as a live performance.

Three dances and their wider ecological and mythopoetic contexts form the roots of my research: the Deer Dance of the indigenous Yaqui of Sonora, Mexico, and their Pascua Yaqui descendants in Arizona, USA; the Highland Fling of the Scottish Highlands; and the Abbots Bromley Horn Dance of Staffordshire, England. Each dance is mimetic in some way, with movements that imitate (or are said to imitate) deer behaviour and gesture. Another common feature, is that they are (or were) all traditionally performed by men and, with their displays of muscular strength and athletic endurance, they are all thought to have their origins in (or associations with) hunting ritual practices.

Held during the Easter fiesta, the Yaqui Deer Dance enacts the wilderness world through a series of songs that address the deer. Beginning at dusk and ending at dawn, a graceful and athletic dance unfolds. A single deer dancer becomes the spirit of the animal, emerging as a timid fawn and growing into a virile adult male. Wearing a stag headdress and carrying rattles that represent the front legs, the dancer's gestures imitate the various movements of a white-tailed deer.

Similar antlered headdresses to those worn by the Yaqui were discovered at Star Carr – a Mesolithic site in Yorkshire. Archaeologists have suggested that these red deer frontlets were worn as part of costumes within hunting rituals, allowing the wearer to harness antler effects and gain access to the perspective of the animal-in-action.

This prehistoric practice finds echoes in the ‘modern’ Abbots Bromley Horn Dance, a Staffordshire folk-dance believed to be a memory of a medieval celebration of villagers’ hunting rights in what are today the remains of the Royal Needlewood Forest. Like the Yaqui dance, it is mimetic: six men bearing mounted antlers at shoulder height move together in a parallel walk, and lurch head-on, as if rutting. Other characters include the Hobbyhorse, Bowman, Fool and Maid Marian.

Rutting is also said to have inspired the Scottish Highland Fling, thought by some to have its origins in an ancient warrior’s dance of triumph, imitative of deer. Legend tells of a boy who encountered a stag. When his father asked him to describe what he saw, lacking words, he danced the animal instead, his movements emulating the capering animal, his hands held aloft for antlers. Though there are records of similar mimetic dances, such as black-cock lekking, this origin story for the Fling is disputed, and it is more likely that the dance was invented by a Lowland dance teacher in the 18th century, as a caricature of a 'wild' highland warrior. Whatever its origins, until recently it was the traditional preserve of men and, nowadays it is the classic solo danced at modern competitive dancing events and Highland Games.

Within my research, I have concentrated on exploring the tacit and cultural knowledge embodied within the various deer dance-steps, studying the ways in which deer behaviour and movements are emulated within the choreographies. With gestures that range from iconic imitation to stylized metaphor, I have become particularly interested in how the mimesis of male deer behaviours, from the capering of the fawn, to the bravado and display of the rutting stag, inform a 'performance' of masculinity by male dancers.
The costumes and props also play a significant role, and often, but not always, feature elements of attire made from animal parts, physically extending the body, allowing the dancer to take on attributes of the stag and step into a space between male human and male deer. As traces of hunting rituals, how are these dances to be understood within a contemporary context? What are the implications of these gendered performances in society today?

In an intersection of ecology, gender and class, by bringing together and comparing these practices, I've become acutely aware of the striking relationship between our cultural perceptions of 'wilderness' and ideas of 'masculinity'. For example, in Scotland, deer and the way hunting is practised is central to the degradation of the Caledonian Pinewood ecology. Beginning with a mass cull of predators, in particular wolves, the destruction of habitat through deforestation was followed by a craze for stalking – itself a mimetic performance of vernacular hunting traditions, re-interpreted and distorted into a form of macho display by landowning classes. Across timescales and cultures, it seems our relationship with deer as a totemic and ideologically powerful animal has contributed to a construction of 'wilderness’ as an 'imaginary landscape', setting 'nature' apart from 'culture', often defining and/or impacting 'real' ecologies. Parallel to this, the idea of 'wilderness' itself has been adopted as a site for the cultivation of heroic-hetero-masculinity that appropriates indigenous cultural knowledge. Is it possible to shift our relationship to the world and renegotiate these dichotomies?

I am now at a stage where I am distilling my research and excited to be preparing to go into production. Working with processes of fragmentation and reconstruction, I hope to create a body of work that uproots and plays with deeply cemented nature:culture and gender binaries, embodying alternative ways of becoming-in-the-world through practices of assemblage and connection. So, what happens next? This weekend I will be heading up to the Trees for Life rewilding estate in Dundreggan, to begin work with a choreographer and dramaturg. I don't want to give too much away, but I can say that I am working on a series of debossed visual scores that trace the fall of the deer dancers' feet. Merging animal tracks with dance notation, these scores will form the basis of a choreography that I plan to perform to camera in the guise of different costumed characters, each one a construction of 'aspects' drawn from a male:female gender spectrum and a human:animal spectrum. I also plan to work on an accompanying vocal composition using technology to augment my voice into 'male' and 'stag' pitch ranges... so until then... watch this space and listen out for the bellow!

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‘Lost in Music’: reflecting the inner thoughts, fears and aspirations of 2019’s young generation.

Lost in Music, Scottish director Nicholas Bone’s collaboration with composer Kim Moore (who also produces work as WOLF) has its UK premiere at North Edinburgh Arts from 1-2 March and then plays at Platform, Glasgow on 6-7 March 2019.

An intriguing and engaging mix of gig-theatre and verbatim performance, Lost in Music features new songs inspired by the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice - the story of a talented musical couple’s journey to hell and back - and the voices of young musicians talking about what music means to them and how it informs their lives, friendships and sense of self.

Read the full Lost in Music media release (PDF).

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Orpheus & Eurydice


I have been playing the drums from the age of 13, and touring all over the world from the age of 21, but I've never been involved in anything quite like the Lost in Music project. Traditionally, drummers are the lowest in the food chain within any band... then bass players... then guitarists... then those human peacocks with the God-shaped hole in their soul: lead singers. Drummers are also considered to be a bit thick, with a touch of the caveman about them. As a drummer, I am used to the role of supporting other people's ideas. But I am also lucky enough to have done that with some of the most innovative musicians of my generation. So, I have had privileged access to some very unusual and highly developed methods of song writing, recording and performing. This has served me well when I have come to start my own bands and write my own songs.

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Magnetic North: Adapting to a new world

Magnetic North: Adapting to a new world

Magnetic North is developing a new performance project based on the book Gossip from the Forest by Sara Maitland. The book explores the strong connections between folk tales and forests, and investigates our forest-dwelling roots. Our adaptation will use live music (particularly traditional/folk) and storytelling. The team working with Magnetic North’s Artistic Director Nicholas Bone is writer Martin O’Connor, songwriter Kirsty Law and three performers: Biff Smith, Kirsty Eila McIntyre and Claire Eliza Willoughby (you can read more about them at the end of this post). 

We were due to begin work on the adaptation with a development week beginning today at Summerhall, but like everyone else we have had to re-think our plans very quickly. Half the team is based in Edinburgh, the other half in Glasgow. Once the advice about only undertaking essential travel was given, we realised that it wouldn’t be possible to all be in the same physical space. After talking to everyone, it was apparent that people still wanted to work, even if we couldn’t all be physically in the same place. So this morning, we’ll start an experiment in working together separately. The three Edinburgh artists all live within walking distance of Summerhall and will meet in a studio big enough to mean they can be in the same room while maintaining the suggested physical distance from each other. We will undertake tasks, including learning the song that Kirsty Law has written, and at times the other three will join us via a video-conferencing app. How will it work? We don’t know, but we will talk about it at the end of each day and see how we feel. It’ll be a learning experience, but we are all going to have to get used to doing things differently over the next few months.

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Magnetic North help experienced artists. Why would they do that? Isn’t that like offering to help an elite athlete cross the road? Or polishing a Formula One car?

Before we can even begin to have this conversation, we must first look at what an experienced artist does. The myth is that they sit around all day, thinking self-indulgent thoughts then pouring them out onto canvas, or the page, or in a little dance. If their work is good, they will leave the grubby Art World behind, for the glitzy world of Meeja. That’s how we know if they’re ‘worth’ something. Because they’re rich and famous.

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